‘Mind-reading machine’ can convert thoughts into speechA mind reading machine is a step closer to reality after scientists discovered a wayof translating people’s thoughts into words. The fun and easy way to learn a new language Stay curious and connected. When you can speak another Sponsored by Babbel language your world becomes bigger, richer and more inspiring. Learn with Babbel – it’s fun, easy and effective.Photo: GETTY IMAGESBy Richard Alleyne, Science Correspondent5:30AM BST 08 Sep 2010Researchers have been able to translate brain signals into speech using sensorsattached to the surface of the brain for the first time.The breakthrough, which is up to 90 per cent accurate, offers a way tocommunicate for paralysed patients who cannot speak and could eventually leadto being able to read anyone thoughts.”We were beside ourselves with excitement when it started working,” saidProfessor Bradley Greger, a bioengineer at Utah University who led the team ofresearchers.”It was just one of the moments when everything came together.”We have been able to decode spoken words using only signals from the brainwith a device that has promise for long-term use in paralysed patients who cannotnow speak.”I would call it brain reading and we hope that in two or three years it will beavailable for use for paralysed patients.”The experimental breakthrough came when the team attached two button sizedgrids of 16 tiny electrodes to the speech centres of the brain of an epileptic patient.The sensors were attached to the surface of the brain The patient had had part ofhis skull removed for another operation to treat his condition.Using the electrodes, the scientists recorded brain signals in a computer as thepatient repeatedly read each of 10 words that might be useful to a paralysedperson: yes, no, hot, cold, hungry, thirsty, hello, goodbye, more and less.Then they got him to repeat the words to the computer and it was able to matchthe brain signals for each word 76 per cent to 90 per cent of the time. Thecomputer picked up the patinet’s brain waves as he talked and did not use anyvoice recognition software.Because just thinking a word – and not saying it – is thought to produce the samebrain signals, Prof Greger and his team believe that soon they will be able to havetranslation device and voice box that repeats the word you are thinking.What is more, the brains of people who are paralysed are often healthy andproduce the same signals as those in able bodied people – it is just they are blockedby injury from reaching the muscle.The researchers said the method needs improvement, but could lead in a few yearsto clinical trials on paralysed people who cannot speak due to so-called “locked-in”syndrome.“This is proof of concept,” Prof Greger said, “We’ve proven these signals can tellyou what the person is saying well above chance.”But we need to be able to do more words with more accuracy before it issomething a patient really might find useful.”People who eventually could benefit from a wireless device that converts thoughtsinto computer-spoken words include those paralysed by stroke, disease and injury,Prof Greger said.People who are now “locked in” often communicate with any movement they canmake – blinking an eye or moving a hand slightly – to arduously pick letters orwords from a list.The new device would allow them freedom to speak on their own.”Even if we can just get them 30 or 40 words that could really give them so muchbetter quality of life,” said Prof Greger.“It doesn’t mean the problem is completely solved and we can all go home. Itmeans it works, and we now need to refine it so that people with locked-insyndrome could really communicate.”.The study, published in the journal of Neural Engineering, used a new kinds ofnonpenetrating microelectrodes that sit on the brain without poking into it.The first was attached to the face motor cortex, which controls facial movementand is on the top left hand side of the brain.The second was attached to the Wernicke’s area, an area just above the left earthat acts as a sort of language translator for the brain.Because the microelectrodes do not penetrate brain matter, they are consideredsafe to place on speech areas of the brain – something that cannot be done withpenetrating electrodes that have been used in experimental devices to helpparalysed people control a computer cursor or an artificial arm.The researchers were most accurate – 85 per cent – in distinguishing brain signalsfor one word from those for another when they used signals recorded from thefacial motor cortex.They were less accurate – 76 per cent – when using signals from Wernicke’s area.Last year, Prof Greger and colleagues published a study showing electrodes could“read” brain signals controlling arm movements.The fun and easy way to learn a new languageStay curious and connected. When you can speak another language your world becomesbigger, richer and more inspiring. Learn with Babbel – it’s fun, easy and effective.